Annotated Bibliography

Caroline Arnold

Professor Zaidman

Beauty and Brains: Women in Sciences

11 September 2011

Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources

Bairstow, Jeffrey. “The sayings of Rear Admiral Grace Murray Hopper, USN.” Laser

Focus World 46.7 (2010): 76. Computers & Applied Sciences Complete. EBSCO. Web. 12 Sept. 2011. The quotes that are included in this article will be used as a primary source. The quotes display Hopper’s passionate personality. They characterize Hopper to be a notable and smart leader. By reading these quotes, it is obvious that being in the Navy as a computer scientist caused Hoppers to be a tenacious and admirable woman. Hoppers was willing to take risks and be a leader.

Secondary Sources

Barker, Colin. “100 Years of Grace Hopper.” CNET News. Dec. 8, 2006. Web. 12 Sept.

2011. Barker’s article gives information about Hopper’s invention, COBOL (Common Business- Oriented Language). He discusses that Hopper in known as “the mother of COBOL.” Her invention is appreciated enormously because it is still used today. COBOL is a software system of language that is more easily understood rather than a person having to interpret mathematical notations. COBOL is still used today and is a huge factor that helps keep businesses running.

Borg, Anita and Whitney, Telle. “The Grace Hopper Celebration.” Communications of

the ACM 38.1 (1995): 50-51. Computers & Applied Sciences Complete. EBSCO. Web. 12 Sept. 2011. This source will be used to discuss the “Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing.” The Grace Hopper Celebration was a computing conference that took place to increase diversity in the computing field. Women were able to get together and discuss their jobs and passion for working in the computing field. It is known that women are a minority in the computer field. The Grace Hopper Celebration was created to fix that problem, increase diversity, and allow women to feel a sense of comfort with their jobs.

Orlando, Maria. “Amazing Grace.” Poptronics 3.7 (2002): 26. Computers & Applied

            Sciences Complete. EBSCO. Web. 12 Sept. 2011. This article admires Hoppers

for her outstanding work. Orlando notes Hoppers to be “the patriot”, “an inspirational teacher”, and “a futurist and a pioneer.” This article includes a sample of the honors and awards Hoppers received in her life. Orlando’s article mentions many uplifting remarks of Hopper’s dedication, work, and creations that gives a sense of high praise towards her.

Sammet, Jean E. “Farewell to Grace Hopper-End of an Era!.” Communications of the

ACM 35.4 (1992): 128-131. Computers & Applied Sciences Complete. EBSCO. Web. 12 Sept. 2011. Sammet’s article mentions how Hopper had a true love and appreciation for the Navy. This source makes known that Hopper was one of the greatest women in the computer field. Hopper’s involvement with her career, such as joining the Harvard faculty as a research fellow in engineering sciences, Navy service, and being involved with ACM is discussed in this source. Sammet mentions being in attendance at Hopper’s funeral and being fascinated by the number of people who also attended and were inspired by her.

Tertiary Sources

“Grace Murray Hopper.” Notable Women Scientists. Gale Group Inc. 1999. Print. This

source gives a brief summary of Hopper’s life. It includes information about Hopper becoming a computer scientist and her work in the Navy. While working as a computer scientist in the Navy, Hopper was fully committed and determined with her studies. This source mentions her creation and development of COBOL, the first English language programming system.

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